In some cases there is soft ground in the top of a building’s or a structure’s foundation. In this way it is required to pass the existing pressure from the building down to more solid grounds located in the depth. The best method in this case is to install pile foundation. Basically pile foundations are able to receive heaver loads comparing with the shallow foundations. Moreover such pile foundations could be reviewed as more economy cause during their installing the volume of wasteful earth works is reduced. At the present time the pile foundations are very widespread within the Republic of Kazakhstan.
A pile is a relatively long bar immersed into soils in two ways: either finished or directly producible in soils in vertical or inclined locations.
Pile works can be defined as an immersion of reinforced piles or building structures into soils using a pressing-in method or a driving method. Mostly these piles or structures are a part of a of pile foundation and could pass the existing loads from a building to foundation soil.
In the light of the technological feature there are several types of piles: driven (reinforced, steel, wooden), factory-made, immersed by pile hummers, vibratory pile driver or vibropressing unit, bored piles (concrete and reinforced concrete) that are produced directly on a site.
Depending on a building’s structural characteristics, load intensity and condition of an external loading the following types of the pile foundations could be used in the modern construction practice:
Single piles are used for light buildings (only one pile receives a building’s column load).
Strip foundations (foundation wall) should be applied under a building’s walls and other lengthy constructions; in these cases the piles placing may be one-row or multiple-row.
Pile clusters are used for separate constructions (usually it is columns of skeleton buildings).
Solid piling field is used for heavy constructions.